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We can define software testing as a process or a series of processes, design to
make sure
computer code does what it
was essentially designed to do and
it doesn’t do
anything unplanned. Two of
most important software testing techniques are white box
testing and
black box testing. In my paper, I have described one of the main software testing technique that is white box
testing. We can define it as a test case design method that uses the control
structure of the procedural design to
derive test cases. I have also defined
the working
process of white box testing technique
and some of its most frequently
used techniques that are control flow
testing, data flow testing, branch testing, basis path testing and loop testing.

Control Flow Testing,
Flow Testing, Branch
Testing, Basis Path Testing,
Loop Testing

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1. Introduction

Software testing is a set of activities shown with the
determined of finding errors. It also ensures that the system is working
according to the requirement. The two important goals of software testing are
to ensure system being developed is according to the customer requirement and
to reveal bugs. An important form of assurance is testing. Testing is a
difficult, expensive and time-consuming job, so the choice of testing must be
based on the risk to the system.

White box testing techniques are one of the most important
software testing techniques, it is typically very effective in validating
design, decision, assumptions and finding programming errors and implementation
errors in software.

White box testing based on analysis of internal workings and
structure of a piece of software and it can uncover implementation errors such
as poor key management. White box testing is performed based on the knowledge
of how the system is implemented. White box testing is very effective and
efficient in validating design decision and assumptions.

are some advantages of white box testing such as it reveals an error in the hidden code, its side effects are beneficial and
helps in removing extra lines of code. 105

The main disadvantage of white box testing is that it is very expensive and some of them

codes omitted in the code could be
missed out. 10 Some
important types of white box testing are

Control Flow Testing

Branch Testing

Basis Path Testing

Data Flow Testing

Loop Testing

Some synonyms
of white
box testing are 5

Glass box testing

Clear box testing

Open box testing

Transparent box

Structural testing

Logic-driven testing



2. Working Process of
White Box Testing Technique

general outlining of white box testing process is described below:

1:  Inputà includes

ü  Requirement

ü  Functional

ü  Detailed designing of

ü  Proper source code

ü  Security specifications
are must 11

2: Processing Unit (Analyzing internal working only)

ü  Perform risk analysis
to guide whole testing process

ü  Proper test plan

ü  Execute test cases and
communicate results

Step 3: Output Prepareà final report

































Figure 1 Represent Working Process of
Box Testing Technique

3. Different Forms of White Box Testing Techniques are










2 Represent Various Forms of White Box Testing Techniques

3.1 Loop Testing

Loop testing is another
type of white box testing which exclusively focuses on
the validity of loop construct. Loops are simple to test unless dependencies exist between the loops or between the
and the code it contains.
There are four classes of loops:

Simple Loop

Nested Loop

Concatenated Loop

Unstructured Loop

3.1.1 Simple Loop

The following sets of tests can be applied to simple loops,
where n it’s a maximum no. of allowable passes through loops. 13

Step 1: Skip the loop entirely

Step 2: Only one pass through the loop

Step 3: Two passes through the loop

Step 4: m passes through the loop where n>m

Step 5: n-1, n, n+1 passes through the loops










3 represents simple loop

3.1.2 Nested

The no. of possible test would grow geometrically
as the level of nesting increases from
simple to nested loops. 13

Step 1: Set all the other loops
to minimum value
and start at the innermost loop

Step 2: Conduct simple loop test for the innermost loop
and holding the outer loops at
their minimum iteration parameter value

Step 3: Performing test for the next loop and work outward

Step 4: Continue until all the
been tested














4 represent nested loop

3.1.3 Concatenated Loop

If two loops are independent rof each other then they are tested by using simple loop test. However, for two concatenated loops, if the loop counter for one loop is used as the initial value for the others, then the two loops
independent. 13

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