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Research
comprises of the word re + search means searching the information from the
existing facts which are already known and adding knowledge to the
dictionary.  The process of
solving problems and searching facts in
a systematic way is another way of defining research. Research can lead to new
contributions to the existing knowledge by
challenging the problem. According to Wikipedia research comprises “creative and systematic work
undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge,
including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock
of knowledge to devise new applications”.  Research in not confined to one discipline.
Research is carried in various fields like science, literature, sociology,
medicine, pathology, history, engineering, economics, public
administration, natural science and technology, the list is never
ending. When a researcher is involved in conducting a research, the researcher
goes through the various steps either formally or informally. The following
steps are involved in conducting a research

 

Step 1: Defining Problem statement –

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A problem
statement is the description of issue which is current. The
statement needs to be addressed so that it must reach to some conclusion. It
provides the area for the research study
and frames the questions which the research aims
to solve. A research problem is a definite or clear idea about
an area of concern, a trouble to be eradicated, a condition to be improved upon.
A research problem does not give the solution to the problem instead it focus
on the explanation of the problem. A problem statement should comprise of
identifying variables. Those variables should be put in the problem statement
which leads to the progress of the research.

 

Setp2: Hypothesis –

A hypothesis is
a proposed explanation for
a phenomenon.
Hypothesis is a scientific way to test the relationship between the variables
which were expressed in the problem statement. Testing hypothesis is the core
of the scientific method. For a hypothesis to be a scientific hypothesis,
the scientific
method requires that one can test it. Scientists generally
base scientific hypotheses on previous observations that
cannot satisfactorily be explained with the available scientific theories. A
scientific hypothesis is not same as scientific theory. The words
“hypothesis” and “theory”
are often used synonymously which is wrong. A working
hypothesis is a provisionally accepted hypothesis proposed for
further research to carry out.

 

Step 3: Review the Literature –

A literature review is a written
text in books, journals, conference paper, article or any recognized source
material, which includes the existing or current knowledge including
substantive findings, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions
to a particular topic. Literature
reviews are secondary sources which are already published and known
to everyone.  It is a survey of
the literature in the chosen area of study. The researcher synthesizes the
information from the various sources into the summary.  It critically analyses the
information gathered by identifying gaps in current knowledge; by showing
limitations of theories and points of view; and by formulating areas for
further research and reviewing areas of controversy. It presents the
literature in a systematic and organized way.

 

 

 

Step 4: Research objective –

The research which is to be carried out should have some social
utilization. The main reason for purpose statements, research hypotheses, and research questions is to identify the main direction or intent of
a study. These elements are the foundation to a study. It gives the direction
to the research. It also raises questions that the research will answer through
various means. Statement of intent in research that specifies goals that the
investigator plans to achieve in the study. The research objective is divided
into major and minor objectives. These objectives appear frequently in survey
or questionnaire studies or in evaluation research in which investigators have
clearly identified objectives.

 

Step 5: Determining specific research questions –

To do research a need of research question or set of questions arises. A
question can be found by thinking about you. What motivates you, the kind of
knowledge outcome you would like to get and the kind of research you would like
to do are some of the question which may hit your mind. It also includes what
others propose like suggestions in the literature of where more research is
needed and calls for papers for conferences and journals on a particular area
of interest.

 

Step 6: Develop the Instrumentation Plan and design experiment –

A strategy for overall approach to answer the research question is
developed by instrumentation plan, design, creation and experiment. In
implementing design and creation focuses on developing new IT product or artifacts.
The IT product is usually a computer based system, but it can also be some
element of the development process such as new construct, model or method.
Design experiment focuses on investigating cause and its effect on
relationships, testing, hypothesis and seeking to prove or disprove a causal
link between a factor and an observed outcome. There is ‘before’ and ‘after’
measurement, and all factors that might affect the results are carefully
excluded from the study, other than the one factor that is thought will cause
the ‘after’ result.

 

Step 7: Collect Data –

In Digital India  data is
collected by online survey. An online form is prepared by the researcher and is
provided to the concern person or may be uploaded on the web site. There are
various web sites which provides a researcher to create online forms like
google. Once the form is uploaded it is sent via email or link is provided.
This is more flexible and friendly way to collect the data. The other sources
of collecting data are: interview, observations, questionnaires and documents.
Interview a particular kind of conservation between people where, at least at
the beginning of the interview if not all the way through, the researcher
controls both the agenda and the proceedings and will ask most of the
questions. One to one and group interviews are also possible. Observations is
paying attention and watching to what people actually do, rather than what they
report they do. It involves looking and getting data by hearing, smelling,
tasting or touching. Questionnaires are a predefined set of questions assembled
in a predefined order. Respondents are asked to answer the questions, often via
multiple choice options, thus providing the researcher with data that can be
analyzed and interpreted. Last but not the least is documents which already
exist prior to the research. The documents that are solely made for the
purposes of the research task like multimedia documents, photographs, diagrams,
animations or videos, music, sound, websites, computer games, online data etc.

 

Step 8: Analyze the Data –

Data can be analyzed in two ways
quantitative and qualitative. The main purpose of quantitative research and
analysis is to quantify the data and assess it from the angle of numbers and
other commonly adopted metrics. The data produced are always
numerical, and they are analyzed using mathematical and statistical methods. If
there are no numbers involved, then it’s not quantitative research. In
quantitative research, the sole approach to data is statistical and takes
places in the form of tabulations. Findings are usually descriptive in nature
although conclusive only within the numerical framework. A qualitative data
analysis often involves words or language, but may also use pictures or
photographs and observations. A more close up picture of the issue is searched in
order to understand something deeper and dig the problem until the cause is
found. At the same time, the qualitative research may be a preceding one to the
quantitative for generating ideas. It involves a continual interplay between
theory and analysis. In analyzing qualitative data, a researcher seeks to
discover patterns such as changes over time or possible causal links between
variables. In 21 century to carry out data analysis various tools are available.
These tools vary depending upon the area of research. Some business tools are OpenRefine, KNIME, RapidMiner, Google Fusion Tables, Google Search
Operators. Some free exploratory tools are Trifact,  Rattle GUI,
Qlikview, Weka and many more.

 

Step 9: Draw conclusion –

Finally
the last step of the research is to summarize the main points which were made
in the introduction and review of the literature. Review briefly the research
methods and/or design which were employed. Repeat the abbreviation from the
findings. Discuss the broader implications of the findings. Mention the
limitations of the research due to its scope or its weaknesses. Offer
suggestions for future research related to the area of interest.

 

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