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B) Device types:

Device can be classifies based on storage capacity,
computational capacity, functionality. Based on the above parameters there are
three types of devices 1) Light peers 2) Standard Peers 3) Peer exchange. Light
peers are as the name implies have low storage capacity, and less computational
power. In the IOT system they are basically sensors like raspberry pie,
sens-hat etc. They are basically used in system monitoring any abnormality in
the system also manage the inventory. They are used for sending and receiving
messages. For example if there is any update in software in the device it the
messages are been sent over by light peers. Standard peers basically higher
computational capacity than light peers and more storage space. They possess
capability for making transaction and assist light peers in file sharing along
with performing some light analytics and computations. Peer exchanges they are
high end devices possessing heavy computation powers. They are been taken care
by entities hosting market places. They have capability to hold a complete copy
of blockchain ledger. Figure 4 shows the types of devices
and the capapbalities they posess such as light peer carries out messaging file
assist in file transfer, standard peer csrries out basic level of device
analytics, transaction verification. Peer exchnge connectss the device with the
outside world makes analytics and negotiation in from the market place.

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Figure 4:
Types of devices (Source: Empowering
the edge: Practical insights on a decentralized Internet of things)

C) Implementing Blockchain to IOT:

As
mentioned above upon implementing Blockchain to IOT can open new possibilities.
Product can be registered right from final assembly to final stage where it is
sold from dealer to the customer. This registered product has its own unique
identity. This life cycle of a product stored in the blockchain can it selves
forming a trusted database. Main aim is to build a smart device to detect a
component failure, check warranty on the data stored in the blockchain. Make a
service request using a peer based review and select the best retailer/service
company. Unlike bitcoin blockchain does not really require to mining process
for approval as IOT blockchain uses “Ethereum” this uses proof of stake.
Product life cycle can better understood using the following example.

 

 

 

In the
Figure 5 A is manufacturing B is neighboring port C is destination port D is
Distributor’s facility E is retailer’s sight. The process of sending container
form manufacturer to the retailer involves several stakeholders and checks.
Each stake holder has their own copy of ledger it keeps on updating
simultaneously. I simple terms asset tracking can be thought of as one shared
database which keeps on updating keeping the track of the product in a
verifiable cryptographically. Assume that container has tracker installed in it
when two stakeholders meet each other let’s say at B where and B are present
the transaction can be signed automatically without third party input and the added
input can be updated in the leger (assuming each stake holder has a GSM/LTE
module). Another verification that can be used is the time stamp method where
the time stamp is been made at each and every point and the data is bee updated
in the ledger.         

 

 

 

Figure
5: Asset tracking (Source: Blockchains and Smart
Contracts for?the Internet of Things)

IV) Used cases:

ADEPT
POC has been used in a wide range of application like mobile light devices like
wearables and smart washer always connected this concept can be further
extended to giant industrial machines to smallest chipsets. A semi-automatic
washer capable of maintaining its inventory by it selves and reordering the
consumables by it selves without the involvement of third part making it highly
secure and reliable. Three main functions are being described in the white
paper for the ADEPT by IBM that includes 1) Reordering consumable 2) Device
service 3) Power bartering. Each of these are described below.

Reordering
consumables: IBM has worked with Samsung to develop W9000 washer with a
detergent dispenser which automatically detects when the supply runs low. As
and when it detects the lowered supply it will follow the following procedure
it will primarily query the peer list and check if it has any pre- existing
contract or not this is checked in the blockchain ledger. Reorder request is
made placed to the retailer and they check the contract is valid or not via
blockchain. Upon confirmation payment is received and order confirmation is
sent to the device owner. This concept can also be applied to large machines this
is the very first step been taken to an automated decentralized approach.

Device
servicing: Every device in the ledger is been assigned an id and stored in the form
of hash. The ledger includes the product life cycle as mentioned above topic
III-C. Several sensors are being installed in the device which monitors the
system performance. Any abnormality detected if the device needs service the
device can call for service by itself. Steps involved in service ordering are
as follows. Any abnormality detected triggers the service request. Washer runs
a check in its own ledger for the warranty in blockchain ledger. Device queries
with other peers for the service request selects a service vendor and places
the request. Upon receiving the service, the request, the service vendor runs a
warranty status check of the device in the block chain. Once confirmed service
request is approved and the device owner and the service provider modify the
time mutually. 

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