The relationship between the work and family lives of
individuals is a major area of research in organisational behaviour(Greenhaus
and Allen, 2011). In the current era of globalization and increasing economic
interdependence among countries, it becomes important to understand the
relationship between work and family as it exists dissimilar in national
contexts (Powell et al., 2009).
are part of every field of life and the challenge which these qualified and
talented women have to face in achieving the goals of their life and
organization is managing and incorporating work and family (Kaiser et al.,
2011).Therefore, in today’s time work family conflict hasprogressively become asubstantial
topic for employees, families, and organizations, as well as for academic
affects personal and family life and personal and family life affects work. In
many cases work and family has marked negative impressions upon employees (e.g.
conflict, exhaustion, turnover) while there are signs of positive impressions
as well (e.g. enhanced skills, mood and morale). Work and family are strongly
connected words (Byron, 2005; Michel et al., 2011) and have penetrable boundaries.
Studies have given quiet enough evidences that happenings and rejoinders in one
domain can have an inspiration on the other domain(Byron, 2005; Michel et al.,
conflict was linked to a variedassortment of work-related consequences (e.g.
low job satisfaction, reduced organizational commitment, high turnover
intentions), family consequences (e.g. low marital and family
satisfaction),physical and mental health problems (e.g. depression and poor
physical health) (Eby et al., 2005; Mesmer-Magnus and Viswesvaran, 2005).
numerous occasions, the results of the studies revealed that no correlation
existed between work-family conflict and organizational commitment (Lu et al.,
2009) and turnover intentions (Zhang et al., 2012).In one of the recent
cross-cultural study the correlation between work-related outcomes (job satisfaction
and turnover intentions) and work-family conflict was more stronger and
positive (Calisir et al., 2011).However, it produced mixed results so this
study add knowledge to existing literature by studying the relationship between
work family conflict and turnover intension.
study considered forerunners and penalties of WFC. We have selected Pakistan
because of its steady economic growth and, more significantly, because of the
twofold status of work and family in Pakistani cultures. Pakistan being a
collectivist culture has been found to have more impact of work demands, out of
which arises work-family conflict than in the USA (Shockley and Singla, 2011:
Zhang et al., 2012). This difference in impacts may be associated with the fact
that collectivists are group-oriented, and thus, Pakistani people emphasize more
on family roles (Shaffer et al., 2005).The same goes for people with high
levels of family centrality than with low levels (Rathi and M, 2013). However,
the difference between West and East may also be elucidated by the portent that
work and family roles are greatly unclear in collectivist societies, and, thus,
people give more preference to their families over job (Choi and Kim, 2012).The
nature of work-family interface may vary along cultural boundaries (Beigiet
al., 2012) So it create room for our study to further strengthen and testify
the results in Pakistani (Eastern) context.
qualitative research across London (UK), Hong Kong, and Beijing (China) directed
that the separation between work and family is a common method to prevent
work-to-family conflict (Wu et al., 2012). However, to our knowledge, the
relationship between work-family conflict and turnover intention taking burnout
and organizational commitment as mediating using a Pakistani sample have not
been empirically examined. The need for this work-family boundary research is
particularly more important for Pakistani employees who leave the organization
because of this WFC.
current research makes numerous unique contributions to both the work family
conflict and turnover intensions literatures. First, we extended both the
leadership and work-family literatures by investigating the correlation between
WFC and turnover intention in Pakistani setting. Secondly, we provide insights
on how work stressors and abusive supervision cause work family conflict.
Thirdly, we examined the mediating effect of burnout and organizational
commitment on the relationship between WFC and turnover intension.
1.2 Problem Statement
Work family conflict is a key reason behind turnover
1.3 Objective of the
The objective of this
research is to contribute towards a current issue of human resource management
that is work life conflict in Pakistan.
To find out predictors
of work family conflict.
To find the impact of
Work family conflict on turnover.
To explore the
mediating role of burnout and organizational commitment in the relationship
between work family conflict and turnover.
To find out the
antecedent and consequences of work family conflict.
conflict has been aconcern for research worldwide. Researchers have surveyed
how the conflict between work and family roles is experienced and coped by
workers (Streich, Casper, , 2008). Even though work-family field has arisen as an
institutional discipline around 30 years ago, yet historians debate that it is
not a newly emerging phenomenon, as people have always been trying to maintain
a balance between their social family lives and economic pursuits
(Pitt-Catsouphes et al., 2005). This universal model has put forward that
individuals experiencing high levels of demands in all the spheres of life must
have to make difficult and out of the way choices. Based on this fulfilment of
demand the individual may be overloaded and eventually conflict may arise.
According to the conflict theory, contradicting demands arise when an
individual tries to be part of multiple roles (Cohen and Liani, 2009).(Greenhaus
and Beutell, 1985) have suggested in their research that WFC exists when time
spent on one role, stress to be part of one role, or certain attitudes demanded
by one role make it almost impossible to meet the demands of other role.
Work-family conflict is thus defined as:
It is form
of inter-role conflict in which the role pressures from the work and family
domains are mutually incompatible in some respect. That is, participation in
the work (family) role is made more difficult by virtue of participation in the
family (work) role.
Generalizing the studies and
prior researches, work on WFC can be subdivided in to two categories. Some
studies discover the effects of WFC in work environments, including a broad set
of variables like job satisfaction (Boyar and Mosley, 2007;Lapierre et al.,
2008), job commitment, turnover intentions (Grandey and Cropanzano, 1999).
The other category of studies observe the
influence of variables that are antecedent affecting WFC in work and family. In
organizational settings these variables include job pressure (Shockley and
Allen, 2007), work support (Lapierre et al., 2008; Seiger and Wiese, 2009;
Taylor et al., 2009), job authority (Andreassi and Thompson, 2007), work
commitment (Day and Chamberlain, 2005), role ambiguity and role
conflict.(Beutell and Wittig-Berman, 2008). Work stressors such as role
conflict, role overload, and role ambiguity are the factors found to have
increased WFC (Fu & Shaffer, 2001).
between WFC and stress of any type is very strong and positive (Beutell and Wittig-Berman,
2008). Out of many components of work stress like role conflict, role ambiguity
and role overload, our study takes in to account just the first two. (Kahn et
al., 1964) had described role conflict as the “simultaneous occurrence of two
(or more) sets of pressures such that compliance with one would make more
difficult compliance with the other” (p. 19). WFC is such a special type of
role conflict in which any person’s two most prominent social roles are generally
included (Ryan, 2007). Further, by (Greenhaus and Beutell., 1985) three types
of WFC constitute pressure incompatibilities-time-based, strain-based, and
behavior-based, which are not essentially mutually exclusive.
Situations arising where an
individual cannot mark his physical presence at multiple activities at the same
time or else when cannot focus on one role when performing another, the outcome
is time-based conflict (Greenhaus and Beutell, 1985). Plus, the conflict also
effects performance in the other role.
Situations where stress or anxiety
of one role disturbs the performance in the other role, the outcome is
strain-based conflict (Greenhaus and Beutell, 1985). As a result, lethargy in
family role may occur as a result of an individual’s depression over
In the end, behavior-based
conflicts are the results of an individual’s inability to move from one
accepted behavior in one role to a desired behavior in another role (Greenhaus
and Beutell, 1985). It has been observed with regard to work-role conflict, the
higher the conflict among work-roles the greater are the chances that strain
will spill over and cause negative aggravated behaviors that cause hindrance in
fulfillment of family roles (Greenhaus et al, 1987).
Work-related stress has been
regarded as a causal antecedent of WFC in numerous studies
(Burke, 1988). The past research has revealed that a significantly strong
relationship is found to exist between role ambiguity and WFC (Bacharach et
al., 1991). Consequently, conclusions from the narrow empirical research
scrutinizing this affiliation recommend that WFC upsurges as a reaction to
employee discernments of a stressful work environment (Williams and Alliger,
As ambiguity related to work roles
increase, employees happen to use more of their mental energy to decrypt it.
This requirement may result in utilizing all of the mental energy and
consideration desired for their family.Exploration has unswervingly exposed a positive
relationship between work role stressors (role ambiguity and role conflict) and
WFC (Fu&Shaffer, 2001; Greenhaus&Beutell, 1985).
Abusive supervision and work-family
conflict have been found to be globally inescapable organizational occurrences
(Spector et el., 2007; Tepper, 2007).
“Abusive supervision is “subordinates’ insights of
the magnitude to which their supervisors engage in the unremitting display of
inimical verbal and non-verbal behaviors, excluding physical contact” (Tepper,
2000, p. 178).
of abusive supervision on work-to-family conflict is aggravated in abused
employees. It has been argued byTepper (2000) that abusive supervision is a
work stressor that may cause employees to be engrossed with work-related
matters, which prospectively undermines from time to bestow to their families.
Moreover, there are high chances that abusive supervision result in uprooting
of psychological strains such as stress (Bamberger and Bacharach, 2006),
tension and emotional exhaustion (Harvey et al., 2007), negative affect
(Hoobler and Brass, 2006), and distress (Tepper et al., 2001). Abused employees
in most cases may bring their strain home, which eventually results in
strain-based work-to-family conflict. Additional, abusive supervision has been
allied to disparaging comportments such as workplace deviance (Liu et al., 2010)
and drinking problems (Bamberger and Bacharach, 2006).
Researchers have examined a number
of potential outcome variables for WFC.Consequences such as absenteeism, lower
job performance, and higher turnover intentions have been associated with WFC
at workplace (Eby et al., 2005). Intention to leave an organization and search
for job somewhere else are positively related with work-family conflict (Burke,
1988). A study including testers from eight European countries established a
stout association between work and family conflict and intention to leave in
most country contexts (Simon et al., 2004). However, what has been found the
same in all researches of WFC is that WFC will always be positively related to
turnover intentions (Eby et al., 2007).
has been viewed for centuries as an antecedent of burnout among employees (Montgomery
et al., 2003), which has
been defined as”A syndrome of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and
reduced personal accomplishment that can occur among employees” (Maslach,
1993). According to (Demerouti et al., 2001), burnout has two vital dimensions:
emotional exhaustion and disengagement.In a broad evaluation
of the significances of work-family conflict, (Allen et al., 2000) established
strong relationships between work-family conflict and stress-related outcomes.
The sturdiest connections were between work-family conflict and burnout (Demerouti
et al., 2001)
burnouts can possibly a significant factor in the high employee turnover. A
significantly high level of job burnout causes employees to come under the
feelings of depression and face a sense of failure, lethargy, and low morale,
which eventually can cause a number of adverse problems for the organization,
including employee turnover, absenteeism, and reduced organizational commitment
(Halbesleben and Buckley, 2004). In lieu of the previous discussion, job
burnout can be considered as an important factor of inducing turnover.
experience burnout tend to report a higher tendency to leave the organization (Muhammad
and Hamdy, 2005).The Conservation of Resources Theory of Stress (Hobfoll and
Freedy, 1993) provides an outline for understanding many of the precarious
antecedents and significances of burnout. Numerous researches have revealed
that a positive relationship exists between burnout and turnover intention (Schaufeli
and Bakker, 2004).
commitment is defined as “stout confidence in and recognition of the
organizational objectives and morals, readiness to employ substantial strength
on behalf of the organization, and a certain craving to uphold organizational
membership” (Porter, Steers, Mowday and Boulian, 1974).
It is important to study the
relationship (Mowday, Porter, & Steers, 1982) between WFC and
Organizational Commitment (Allen & Meyer, 2000). Committed employees are in
a better position to stay committed and put in more strong efforts to achieve organization’s
objectives, mission and goals (Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso, 2000). Thus, in
cases where employees face irritated levels of WFC, their work interferes with
their roles and responsibilities and this eventually develop a negative
commitment towards the organization (Ajiboye, 2008).
In the past few years workload has
increased tremendously which has made employees to spend less time with their
families therefore organizational commitment where WFC exist have been of
interest for researchers (Akintayo, 2010). A significant relationship has been
revealed between managerial roles and WFC (Popoola, 2008) and WFC has been
playing a vital role in determining its influence on work attitudes, job
involvement and has negative effect on commitment (Akintayo, 2010).
Turnover intensions has been
defined as “a conscious and deliberate willfulness to leave the organization” Most consideration given to the
concept of organizational commitment results from its relationship with
turnover.Several models (Mobley et al., 1979) connect organizational commitment
abstractly to turnover.Empirical research on organizational commitment usually
has shown commitment to be an important forecaster of turnover. By definition,
highly dedicated employees desire to stay with their employing organization.
(Moday, Porter & Steer., 1982).
Researchers have examined OC both as a dependent
variable (Earl and Bright, 2007) and as a predecessor of work outcomes (Loi et
al., 2006). OC has been one of the “salient” attitudinal correlates in studies
that used turnover intention as the outcome criterion (Pare´ and Tremblay,
2007). (Mowday et al., 1982) argued that individuals high on this measure are
more stable and have greater feelings of belonging and, in the present
formulation, would more likely be “organization” bounded. Investigators
consistently report a negative association with turnover behaviour (Griffeth et
al., 2000) as well as turnover intention (Loi et al., 2006). In their analysis
of lawyers in Hong Kong, (Loi et al., 2006) argued that “employees who develop
a strong attachment to the organization have less intention to leave.” In
another study, (Shafer et al., 2002) reported that professional accountants who
perceived higher levels of organizational-professional conflict were less
committed to the organization, had higher turnover intention.
2.1 Hypothesis Statement
Role conflict is positively related to work family conflict.
Role Ambiguity is positively related with WFC.
Abusive supervision is positively related to WFC.
Work-family conflict will positively correlate to intention to leave.
WFC is negatively related to burnout.
Burnout will positively correlate to intention to leave.
WFC is negatively related to organizational commitment.
Organizational commitment is positively related to turnover intension.
Burnout will mediate the relationship between WFC and turnover intensions
Organizational commitment mediates the relationship between WFC and turnover
Population and sample
The population in the
universe will be telecom sector ofPakistan.The source of data for this study
will be primary data acquired through questionnaire. Pilot testing will be done
to test the psychometric properties in the current context then afterwards main
study will be done to test the hypothesis. A
sample of 100 respondents will be taken for pilot study and a sample of approximately
300 respondents will be taken for the main study.
Stratified randomsampling technique will
be used for the data collection.
Role Ambiguityand Role Conflict
ambiguity and conflict will be measured using six- and eight-item scales based
on Rizzo et al. (1970). The scale items will be statements to which respondents
will be asked to rate how often they had experienced the particular
circumstance on a five-point scale anchored with “always” (5) and “never”
will be measured using fifteen-item scalesbased of Tepper(2000). The scale items will be
statements to whichrespondents will be asked to rate how often they had
experienced the particularcircumstance on a five-point scale anchored with
“very often” (5) and “never” (1).
Work Family Conflict
conflict will be assessed using the eight-item measure developed by Burke et
al. (1976). Each statement will be based on a five-point Likert scale anchored
by “strongly agree” (5) and “strongly disagree” (1).
will be measured using 22 items from the Maslach burnout inventory (Maslach and
Jackson, 1981). Respondents will be asked to indicate their feelingsabout each
statement based on a five-point Likert scale anchored by “stronglyagree” (5)
and “strongly disagree” (1).
This will be measured with a three-item
version of the organizational commitment questioners (OCQ) adapted from
Bozeman and Perrewe, (2001). A five-point scale is employed ranging from 1
(strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).
will use a four-item scale based on Bluedorn (1982) to measure intention to
leave. Each item will beaccompanied by a 7-point scale anchored by “very
high” (7) and “very low” (1).
3.4 Data Analysis Technique
For data analysis Statistical Package
for Social Sciences (SPSS) and AMOS will be used.