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1.4 Protein

Total
nitrogenous substance of a plant consists of complex structure with amino acids
and peptide bonds. It contains the elements carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, hydrogen,
oxygen and some other like (iron, phosphorus), also acting as enzyme, serving
as hormones and support immune system.

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1.4.1
Amino Acids

Amino
acids are the building blocks of protein; they are organic compounds containing
carboxyl and amine groups and a specific side chain (R group). Carbon, oxygen
and hydrogen are the basic elements of amino acids

1.4.2
Protein and Amino Acids in Okra
Okra contains protein about
1.93/100gm (a/c to research). Okra is rich in following amino acids (according
to research paper)

·        
Threonine
(0.065/100gm)

·        
Alanine
(0.073/100gm)

·        
Arginine
(0.084/100gm)

·        
Valine
(0.091/100gm)

·        
Isoleucine
(0.069/100gm)

·        
Leucine
(0.105/100gm)

·        
Glutamic acid
(0.271/100gm)

1.4.3
Impact of Protein & Amino Acids in Human Body

When
protein is taken, human body use it in repairing and building of tissues,
mainly use to regulate hormones and enzymes activity and also plays an
important role in the maintenance of bones, cartilages, muscles blood and skin.
Following amino acids are present in okra which helps to maintain human health.

1.4.3.1
Threonine

Proteins
are biosynthesized by threonine, it consists of carboxyl and amino group and
side chain of hydroxyl group which makes it polar and uncharged amino acid.

They
are essential amino acid which regulates normal protein balance in the body and
help to promote normal growth, it plays an important role in the formation of
serine and glycine. It imparts in the formation of strong and elastic muscles,
strengthen bones and build tooth enamel, also help in recoverig injuries and
wounds.

Threonine
also regulates fat and fatty acid digestion, it combines with methione and
aspartic acid to perform lipotropic function of liver, if one could have
insufficient threonine in body so in result liver failure occur due to fat
deposition and antibodies are also produced by threonine which leads to treat
diseases like depression.

1.4.3.2
Alanine

Alanine
contains alpha amino and alpha carboxylic acid group and a side chain of methyl
group, which makes it nonpolar. It is basically non-essential amino acid. It
performs many essential functions in human body like regulates sugar and acid
metabolism, allow body to convert glucose into energy, prevents cells
destruction under extreme aerobic conditions and it also remove enough toxins
from body.

1.4.3.3
Arginine

Essential
amino acids, made up of carboxylic acid and amino group and a side chain of 3-carbon
aliphatic chain. It performs its role in the treatment of chronic diseases like
congestive heart failure (CHF), high BP, diabetes, dementia and male
infertility and blockage of arteries are also treated by arginine because its
produces a chemical nitric oxide which helps to wider the vessels and allow
easily flow of blood from it.

It’s
also used with the combination of other medications for the treatment of
different types of cancers (mainly breast cancer), for weight loss and for the
reduction of different infections

1.4.3.4
Valine

It
is essential, nonpolar  aliphatic amino
acid, consist of alpha amino and alpha carboxylic group and a side chain of
isopropyl group and present in the interior of protein. It has three branches
(BCAAs) along with leucine and isoleucine.

It
stabilizes human muscle by the supply of extra glucose to release energy during
physical movement, that’s why people whom exercise a lot should take valine for
the buildup of their muscle mass because its regulate the recovery of muscle
tissues, it also helps to repair the muscles or organs which was destructed due
to excess use of alcohol or drugs.

1.4.3.5
Isoleucine

Its
nonpolar and uncharged aliphatic amino acid, made up of amino and carboxylic
acid group and a hydrocarbon side chain. There are three types of branched
amino acids in human body leucine, isoleucine and valine and they all helps to
recover muscle issues in the body.

Isoleucine
helps in the healing and repairing of damaged muscles and clotting of blood,
and also maintain the energy level in body by regulate blood sugar level. 

1.4.3.6 Leucine

It’s
one of the essential, non-polar aliphatic amino acid; consist of amino and
carboxylic group and a side chain of isobutyl group.

It’s
important for muscle protein synthesis (MPS), leucine is the amino acid which
promotes mTOR and regulates over all function of making muscles, and plays an
important role in weight loss.

1.4.3.7
Glutamic Acid

Glutamic acid is made
up of one amino and two carboxyl groups, savory flavor (umami touch) in foods
are due to this acid. Glutamine (another amino acid) and glutamic acid are able
to interchange and transform into other, and during this transformation ammonia
is detoxified from brain easily.

It helps in the
regulation of magnesium, sodium and potassium because of its essential property
as a neurotransmitter, also helps in the breakdown of folic acid and allows
human body to utilize it. It’s mainly present in spinal cord and brain of
human.

1.5 Minerals

Minerals
are define as natural inorganic constituents of food like, iron, calcium,
magnesium, zinc etc and it is essential component required by humans to perform
functions of body.

1.5.1Minerals
in Okra

Okra
contain number of minerals such as (according to research)

·        
Potassium (299mg/100gm)

·        
Calcium (82mg/100gm)

·        
Phosphorus
(61mg/100gm)

·        
Magnesium
(57mg/100gm)

1.5.1.1
Potassium

It
is third most important mineral as essential nutrient, necessary for the
maintenance of several functions in human body such as the balance of
electrolyte and to regulate the body fluid. It imparts in the function of
organs and prevents heart, nervous system, kidneys disorders by maintaining pH
level in body.

1.5.1.2
Calcium

Its
most essential nutrient in human for the maintenance of teeth and bones, allows
muscles to contract properly, and helps to cure blood clots. Mainly calcium is
stored in teeth and bones and the remaining are able to regulate body
functions. Osteoporosis (bone problem) also prevent by the proper intake of
calcium.

1.5.1.3
Phosphorus

Phosphorus
is also very important nutrient for the health of our bones and teeth, calcium
and phosphorus combines and form calcium phosphate to strengthen the bone and
as well as also plays a crucial role in the formation of sugar base backbone
for RNA and DNA.

1.5.1.4
Magnesium        

It’s
very crucial nutrient for the human, it’s essential to metabolize calcium in
body; it deals with the heart issues like atherosclerosis and high blood
pressure and also help out in Alzheimer’s disease, by generating new neurons
and reduced brain inflammation.

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